F&B service II
topic- menu planning
Serving Hors d’Oeuvres
The two most common ways to serve hors d’oeuvres areButler-style service - offered to guests by servers on small trays.
Canapés: canapes may be defined as bite sizes open faced sandwiches.
they consist of :base
canape basesbread cutouts
profitroles (tiny unsweetened cream puff shells)
toasted pita wedges
tortilla chips or cups
canape spreadscan be as simple as softened butter or cream cheese but cam be highly flavoured.
spreads can be divided into three categories
flavoured cream cheese
meat or fish salad spreads
flaked white fish cocktail
flavoured cream cheese
meat or fish salad spreads
any food item that is places on top of the item to enhance the presentation of the canape
- vegetables, pickles, and relishes
- fish and shellfish
- hard cooked eggs
lemon, caviar, shrimps, parsley, mustard, olive, tarragon, horseradish, shallot, chive, pimento, scallions, anchovy, blue cheese, curry, capers.
Cocktails:the term cocktails is used not only for alcoholic bevrages nad juices but for a group of appetizers made with seafood or fruits. usually served on a bed of crushed ice.
flaked white fish cocktail
all served with an appropriate sauce and garnish.
Relishes: these cover two categories of foods:raw vegetables
- called crudites which in french means "raw"
- the most popular vegetables are celery, carrots and radishes.
- vegetables should be crisp and well chilled
- use the freshest, most attractive vegetables possible
- pickeled items
- items like dilled cucumber pickeles, gherkins, olives, watermelon pickles, pickeled peppers, sliced beets.
- all items should be well chilled and attractively presented
- savory dips are popular accompaniments to potato chips, crackers, and raw vegetables
- a proper consistency is important for any dip. proper consistency means thickness at serving room temperature.
Miscellaneous Hors d’Oeuvres: a great variety of foods can be served as hors d'oeuvres: any foods that can be eaten with the fingers and or speared with a tooth pick
italian cuisine is particularly rich in hors d'oeuvres of antipasti. as they are called. many menus of italian style restaurants offers a cold plate of antipasti, or assorted flavourful titbits.
hard cooked eggs
mushroom and other vegetables cooked dry beans.
bruchetta is a slice of italian bread, tossed,, rubbed with crushed garlic, and drizzled with olive oil.
served with toppings, the most common of which is seasoned diced fresh tomatoes.
spanish tapas are small food items intended to be eaten with wine, usuallly in bars or taverns.
in sppanish, it literally means "lid"
These are roe of sturgeon
Roe- processed fish eggs
Sturgeon- Particular species of fish found in Caspian Sea or black sea
· Grainy Caviar
· Pressed Caviar
Grainy caviar can be further classified into-
Beluga- white in colour
Sevruga- dark in colour
Ossetra- Black in colour
- it isold in weight basis. Almas is the costliest among all the caviars which costs 23000 dollar per kg.
Cover- Caviar Knife/ Fish Knife on the right side of the cover, caviar pot on a bed of crushed ice in a caviar plate
Accompaniment- Blinis/Toast ( blinis is a savoury Russian pan cake made of buckwheat flour), sieved egg yolk, chopped egg white, chopped shallots and segments of lemon
- it is a tiny appetizer or hors d'oeuvre offered, compliments of the chef.
- usually in more expensive restaurants.
- nearly anything can be served as amuse boudhe: salads, soups, canapes, fish, and vegetables.
Tobacco is the name given to the plant and cured loaves of several species of Nicotiana which may be used, commonly after aging and processing in various ways for the purpose of smoking, chewing, snuffing and extraction of nicotine. Nicotine and related alkaloids of tobacco furnish the habit forming and narcotic effects which account for general worldwide use.
History: Tobacco was first cultivated by the Indians of North and South America when Christopher Columbus and other early explorers arrived in America, they found natives using tobacco much in the same manner as it is used today. As per Indians it was supposed to possess medicinal properties. Jean Nicot the French ambassador at Lisbon, in whose honour the genus Nicotiana was named, is said to have sent seed of
N. tabacum to the queen of France, Catherine de Medicis. From Europe tobacco was taken largely by Portuguese and Spanish sailors, to the furthest comers of the known world.
Harvesting and curing: Tobacco is harvested from 70-130 days after transplanting by one of the two methods.
- 1. the entire plant is cut with the stalk split or speared and hung on a tobacco stick
- 2. The leaves are removed at intervals as they mature.
• Curing and subsequent aging allow for the slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids in tobacco leaf. This produces certain compounds in the tobacco leaves, and gives a sweet hay, tea, rose oil, or fruity aromatic flavor that contributes to the "smoothness" of the smoke. Starch is converted to sugar, which glycates protein, and is oxidized into advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a caramelization process that also adds flavor. Inhalation of these AGEs in tobacco smoke contributes to atherosclerosis and cancer. Levels of AGE's is dependent on the curing method used.
• Tobacco can be cured through several methods, including:
• Air cured tobacco is hung in well-ventilated barns and allowed to dry over a period of four to eight weeks. Air-cured tobacco is low in sugar, which gives the tobacco smoke a light, mild flavor, and high in nicotine. Cigar and burley tobaccos are air cured.
• Fire cured tobacco is hung in large barns where fires of hardwoods are kept on continuous or intermittent low smoulder and takes between three days and ten weeks, depending on the process and the tobacco. Fire curing produces a tobacco low in sugar and high in nicotine. Pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff are fire cured.
• Flue cured tobacco was originally strung onto tobacco sticks, which were hung from tier-poles in curing barns (Aus: kilns, also traditionally called Oasts). These barns have flues run from externally-fed fire boxes, heat-curing the tobacco without exposing it to smoke, slowly raising the temperature over the course of the curing. The process generally takes about a week. This method produces cigarette tobacco that is high in sugar and has medium to high levels of nicotine.
• Sun-cured tobacco dries uncovered in the sun. This method is used in Turkey, Greece and other Mediterranean countries to produce oriental tobacco. Sun-cured tobacco is low in sugar and nicotine and is used in cigarettes.
After curing, the leaf may be piled in a bulk for a time to mature before it is prepared for sale. Type of leaf and local custom determine the fineness of grading. Leaf may be graded' position on the plant, colour, size, maturity; soundness and other quality elements.
After purchase and any necessary regrading, many large leaf tobaccos are redried - dried then given back the exact amount of moisture needed for aging before being packed in cases or hogsheads. The first stage in turning leaf into tobacco is to remove midrib and crush into leaves.
VARIETIES OF TOBACCO1. Latakia: It is a strong and spicy variety of tobacco made from plants grown in Northern Cyria, Cyprus and other Eastern countries. This is smoke cured by the fire of the Asiatic oak, which turns it into a dark shade. Sometimes cow dung or camel dung is used as fuel for the fire. Therefore it has a rich and heavy taste with aroma having smoky characteristic. Latakia is an important ingredient for many English mixtures like e.g.
However the percentage should not exceed from 40-50% as excess use would tend to make it dry and harsh.
2. Perique: It is a red burley type of tobacco grown and processed in Louisiana, New Orleans. This variety is used to increase the strength of pipe mixture. It is blended with Virginia generally e.g. Dunhill Elizabethan Mixture
3. Pipe Tobacco: Virginia is the most popular type used in pipe tobacco. As it is mild in nature and has highest level of sugar which gives a light taste after blending e.g. Dunhill, Rattray, Marlin Flake
The tobacco factory is magnificent and well ventilated building. The cured leaves are spread out on the floor in a lightly compressed mass; they are too dry for immediate use. Bundles of tobacco are separated and put in steam heated chambers in which the temperature is raised to anything between 120°F and 160°F. Then the stalks and midribs are removed by hand or machine. The stripped leaves are left in ordinary heaps for about 24 hours during which they become thoroughly impregnated with additional moisture which renders them supple and usable.
"The blending of various mixtures is in the hands of experts who know the exact proportion in which stronger tobaccos like Latakia and Perique should be blended with lighter tobacco.
When different brands have been made up, the leaves are placed in machine which compresses them in the form of a hard cake. They are then shredded finally or coarsely with knives or shredding machines. Any excess moisture is removed by panning or stoving, a different process which brings out aroma. After panning tobacco is spread out evenly on trays to enable it to cool down to the temperature of air following which tests are carried out to ensure that the moisture content does not exceed the legal limit 32%.
Most of today's popular pipe mixtures are composed almost entirely of Empire tobacco, the Rhodesian leaves being mainly flavoured..
4. Cigarette Tobacco: In the manufacture of cigarettes Virginian separately or in carefully blended mixtures. As in pipe tobacco, bundles from warehouses are received and stripped of midribs by machine or hands. The leaves then go to a machine which cuts them into fine shreds. Excessive moisture is removed from the tobacco and also the impurities. The tobacco is left for a day or two to mature following which it goes to a cigarette manufacturing machine. The papers for the cigarettes are unloaded from a disc and enter the machine and receive the tobacco flowing in a constant stream. Paper and tobacco move together. The paper is rolled round the tobacco and gummed at the end. The continuous tube of cigarette then runs beneath knives which cuts it into cigarettes of required lengths and stocks them neatly.
The cigarettes are not packed immediately but are left to dry for 24 hours. The machines used for packing are equally ingenious as those which make cigarettes. So human is this equipment that a carton or packet incompletely filled is automatically rejected. The tins if required for export are vacuum sealed.
Cigarettes making requires high degree of skill.
5. Burley: It is one of popular variety of tobacco, contains no sugar. Therefore it is dry and has full aroma. It easily absorbs flavourings and is used in many aromatic flavours. It bums slowly e.g. are
Blue Edge Worth
Half and Half
A cigar consists of three parts1. Filler
The filler is the inner core that forms the body and shape of the cigar.
The binder is the leaf in which the filler is wrapped to form what is known as cigar bunch. The wrapper or outer covering of cigar consists of a ribbon leaf rolled spirally around the cigar bunch. Wrapper leaf must be strong, elastic and silky in texture and of even colour and it must possess good flavour and burning properties. It is the most expensive leaf used in cigars.
Note: Filler and binder together are called Bunch.
Processing: The cured leaf is fermented or sweated before use in the cigar in order to reduce the content of harsh and bitter compounds and to develop the mild and aromatic properties of the leaf.
Wrapper leaves, which receive the greatest care are tied on bundle of 40-50 leaves. Heat is generated in bulk which aids in fermentation.Banding and Packing: Modern packaging of cigar demands that band be placed on the cigar or printed on the protective covering which is usually cellophane. This preserves the natural humidostatic condition of the cigar and is accomplished by machine at the rate of 30000 cigars daily cellophane tinfoil or any other combination of similar wrapping.
Colour classification- The main colour classifications of cigar are:
COLORADO –CLARO, MEDIUM
COLORADO MADURO, VERY DARK
MADURO, EXCEPTIONALLY DARK
SIZE AND SHAPE DESCRIPTION
A STRAIGHT SHAPE CIGAR WITH ROUNDED TOP ABOUT 5 ½ INCHES LONG
ABOUT 5 INCHES LONG
TRES PETIT CORONA
ABOUT 4 ½ LONG
HALF A CORONA
ABOUT 3 ¾ LONG
SAME AS CORONA ABOUT 6 ½ INCHES LONG
A SLENDER TORPEDO SHAPED CIGAR, TAPERED AT THE LIGHTING END ABOUT 6 ½ INCHES LONG
A SMALL TORPEDO SHAPED CIGAR
A STRAIGHT CIGAR, ABOUT 4 ¾ INCHES LONG
IS A LONGISH THIN CIGAR OPEN AT BOTH ENDS USUALLY BBOUT 5 INCHES IN LENGTH
A THIN CIGAR, OPEN AT BOTH ENDS USUALLY THICKER AND STUBBIER THAN PANATELA
Service of cigars
Cigars should be offered in their own boxes to allow the customer to choose his own, The type of cigar will be printed on the box. The customer having chosen the cigar he wishes the waiter should offer to remove the band. A cigar cutter or piercer should be used to cut the cigar. The waiter should then offer to light the cigar of customers.
Note: Cigar should be offered at the end of the meal with coffee. In case of nonchalant guest offer a box with assorted sizes and strength.
Storage of Cigars
Cigar should be kept in a moist place and at even temperature. That's why it is best to keep cigars and cigarettes in a glass case with humidifier. The cigars remain best in their own cedar boxes because it has unique quality of releasing moisture when needed and absorbing when not required in surrounding areas. The advantage of keeping cigar in cedar wood boxes is that mild fragrance of cedar wood mingles well with cigar. Remember not to place cigars near items which emanate its flavours or fragrance or absorb the flavour and fragrance of surrounding e.g. milk will pick up tobacco flavour and cheese will impregnate its mouldy flavour to cigar.
Note: The ideal temperature of storage of cigar is 16-18°C and a relative humidity required is 65-70%
American- Robert burns panatela, Corona, Invincible, Perfecto.
Danish- Apostolado grand corona, Rothschild, Havana Henryclay, Royal coronation
Romeo Juliet- Churchil romeo, Montecristo.
Holland- Cuba cabana Habana, Permanent
Cuban- Bolivar(full flavor), Cohiba(medium to full flavor), Punch, Romeo y julieta, Trinidad, Montecristo.
The term cigarette, denoting a paper wrapped roll of finely cut tobacco is an adoption of the Spanish Cigaro. Its original meaning was little cigar but usually cigarette tobacco is of a different types, generally milder.
The success story of American mass production and standardizing product, brand development goes with the success of cigarette story. The cigar making has been by and large slow, handmade cottage industry. At the most small machines are used and the popularity remains few and far between. On the other hand, same tobacco ravaged the world in form of cigarette gave enormous revenue to state exchequer as tax in the form of excise and gave huge amount of employment, gave typical boost to unproductive arid land, agriculturists and made multiple multimillionaire and multinational, last not but not the least cancer epidemic. Cigarettes are produced by a special kind of inferior kind of tobacco produced in and around Virginia branded as Virginia tobacco which is less fermented, less aromatic, flue cured, light coloured. Cigarette being most popular variety of tobacco have had its worth ill effect also unable to banish this product with biggest global lobby, people have tried to disinfect it by using different types of filter to start with charcoal, cotton and other kinds of natural and artificial fibers and filaments. They also use supporting chemicals to absorb tar, nicotine and various other poisonous fumes emanated from burning of paper and tobacco. The latest innovation in the filter tipped business is use of menthol cool and various other aromatic substances to enhance smoking pleasure for less addict. Cigarettes have various types of cut to allow it to burn rapidly or slowly. The V cut of tobacco actually permits specks of tobacco continuously smouldered without burning. There are spiral cuts for rolled tobacco which are smaller rolls that require slower smouldering otherwise it will burn ' out. Most cigarettes are produced in assembly lines massive machines from cutting tobacco into different cuts till packing them in boxes and cellophane all at one go. Cigarettes come in different length and tax excise depends on the size of the cigarette rather than the brand.
types of cigarette
NO FILTER LENGTH: 2 ¾ INCHES
HAVE FILTER CONTAIN MORE TAR AND NICOTINE LENGTH: 3 ½ INCHES
HAS LONG FILTER THAN KINGS LENGTH: 3 ¾ INCHES
IT COMPRISES MENTHOL
A BLEND OF TOBACCO AND CLOVE SPICE HAS NO FILTER LENGTH: 3 ½ INCHES
CONTAINS NO TOBACCO BUT HERBS LIKE GINSENG, MARSHMALLOW, MINT AND PASSION FLOWER.
GERMAN- LORD FILTER TIP
AMERICAN- MARLBORO, WINSTON, LUCKY STRIKE
ENGLISH- BENSON AND HEDGES, DUNHILL
RUSSIAN- BLACK RUSSIAN, ORIGINAL TURKISH
Service of Cigarettes
Cigarettes should never be carried by hand to the customer but placed on a salver or a plate. The packet should be opened (pulling out a tew cigarettes partially). The waiter should stand by with a match or lighter to light the cigarette. It should be made sure that the ashtray is on the table. Ashtrays should never be allowed to collect too much ash, it is the waiter's duty to exchange them frequently for fresh ones. These days, there is an important programme for the Hospitality Industry called "courtesy of choice" introduced all over the world in various hotels to accommodate in harmony those who smoke and those who don't smoke.
1. Filter made of 95% cellulose acetate.
2. Tipping paper to cover the filter.
3. Rolling paper to cover the tobacco.
4. Tobacco blend.